2. Although they primarily feature the extremely destitute, the vast majority of the people, both staying in and fleeing from Oklahoma, suffered great poverty in the Depression years. One approach to obtain land in or near the established states was to relocate tribes to unsettled territory further west. Oklahoma, constituent state of the U.S. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were the convicted perpetrators of the attack, although many believe others were involved. Thus Oklahoma’s eastern boundary runs at a slant toward Fort Smith both from the north and the south. A Brief History of Wewoka, Oklahoma. In recent years, major efforts have been made by state and local leaders to revive Oklahoma's small towns and population centers, which had seen major decline following the oil bust. But Oklahoma City and Tulsa remain economically active in their effort to diversify as the state focuses more into medical research, health, finance, and manufacturing. The Caddoan communities were not as large as other eastern and southern Mississippian communities, they were not fortified, and they did not establish large, complex chiefdoms; with the possible exception of the Spiro Mounds on the Arkansas River. Many pro-Confederate Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole Indians fled south, becoming refugees among the Chickasaw and Choctaws. General Pleasant Porter, Principal Chief of the Muscogee Creek Nation, was selected as president of the convention. [28] Using the constitution from the Sequoyah convention as a basis (and the majority) of the new state constitution, Haskell and Murray returned to Washington with the proposal for statehood. "[26], Oklahoma is best known to the rest of the world for its frontier history, famously represented in the 1943 Broadway hit musical Oklahoma! ), (Family History Library book 976.6 H2mc. Origins of Oklahoma. The southern boundary of the Kansas Territory was set at the 37th parallel north, establishing the northern border of the future state of Oklahoma. Texas was annexed as a state into the United States in 1845, and the Mexican–American War followed from 1846–1848. The Kiowa language is part of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family. History of Oklahoma Indians - Destruction and Decline The history of the European invasion brought epidemic diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, influenza, measles and smallpox. In 1931, Governor William H. Murray used the National Guard to shut down all of Oklahoma's oil wells in an effort to stabilize prices. The eastern part of the state is humid subtropical climate zone. In 1821, New Spain gained its independence and became the short-lived Mexican Empire, followed by the Mexican Republic in 1824. At the conclusion of the Seven Years' War and its North American counterpart, the French and Indian War, France was forced to cede the eastern part of the territory in 1763 to the British as part of the Treaty of Paris. 1, 12 Stat. Areas of Oklahoma east of its panhandle were acquired in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, while the Panhandle was not acquired until the U.S. land acquisitions following the Mexican–American War. 1803: The United States acquired most of the area that is now Oklahomaas part of the Louisiana Purchase. Oklahoma (in red) on the U.S. map with bordering states. Carol H. Welsh, "'Back The Attack': The Sale Of War Bonds In Oklahoma", Indian Territory in the American Civil War, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, Spartan College of Aeronautics and Technology, History of the South Central United States, "Caddo Fundamentals: Mississippi World. Arkansas Territory was created out of the southern part of Missouri Territory in 1819. Oklahoma Territorial Counties. In addition to relinquishing claims on lands north of this parallel, Texas also had to give up its claim to parts of what is now New Mexico east of the Rio Grande, however in exchange the U.S. assumed Texas' $10 million debt. The bond drives enlisted schoolchildren, housewives and retired men, giving everyone a sense of direct participation in the war effort.[37]. A local history may also suggest other records to search. In 1800, France regained sovereignty of the western territory of Louisiana in the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. The History of Oklahoma refers to the history of the state of Oklahoma and the history of the land that the state now occupies. Between AD 800 and 1450, much of the midwestern and southeastern US (including the eastern part of what is now Oklahoma) was home to a group of dynamic cultural communities that are generally known as the Mississippian culture. They describe the settlement of the area and the founding of churches, schools, and businesses. However, Confederate Brigadier General Stand Watie, a Cherokee, captured Union supplies and kept the insurgency active. [7], About AD 900, on terraces above the Washita and South Canadian Rivers in Oklahoma, farming villages began to appear. In 1861, as the American Civil War began, Texas forces moved north and the United States withdrew its military forces from the territory. Spain, which ceded Spanish Florida to the British in the Treaty of Paris in order to regain its colonies in Havana and Manila, did not contest British authority over the eastern part of French Louisiana as it desired the western portion that was adjacent to its colony of New Spain. However, during negotiations with the Choctaw in 1820, Andrew Jackson unknowingly ceded more of Arkansas Territory to them than was realized. [18], The Creek refused to relocate and signed a treaty in March 1832 to open up a large portion of their land in exchange for protection of ownership of their remaining lands. In 1910, the Democrats moved the capital to Oklahoma City, three years before the Oklahoma Organic Act allowed, in order to move away from the Republican hotbed of Guthrie. The Indian Territory was created from the Indian Intercourse Act on June 30, 1834 and existed until May 2, 1890.. Oklahoma - Oklahoma - History: Although it is one of the newest states in the union, Oklahoma has one of the oldest records of human occupation. One scandal followed another—Walton's questionable administrative practices included payroll padding, jailhouse pardons, removal of college administrators, and an enormous increase in the governor's salary. Democratic Governor Brad Henry pledged to eliminate taxes on retirement income for senior citizens, provide access to affordable prescription drugs, retain jobs in the state, improve Oklahoma schools, and increase teachers' salaries. "[15]:140 Later the area would be referred to as Indian Territory. Duncan, Oklahoma is the birthplace of Halliburton Corporation. Texas Beyond History. Those that survived the wars eventually were paid to move west. [6] These early Wichita people were hunters and gatherers who gradually adopted agriculture. The following 16 years saw Congress pass several laws whose purpose was to join Oklahoma and Indian territories into a single State of Oklahoma. The Pueblo became subsistence laborers; they had fewer surplus goods to trade with their neighbors. Explore Oklahoma's fascinating and unique history by visiting the many historical sites and museums found all across the state. Some examples for the State of Oklahoma are: The following are only a few of the many sources that are available: To find more books and articles about Oklahoma 's history use the Internet Google search for phases like "Oklahoma history." The Quapaw, Osage, Oto, and other Indian tribes arrived about this time. They held a convention in Eufaula, consisting of representatives from the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee (Creek), and Seminole tribes, known as the Five Civilized Tribes. Although the most persistent dust storms primarily affected the Panhandle, much of the state experienced occasional dusters, intermittent severe drought, and occasional searing heat. The following important events in the history of Oklahomaaffected political jurisdictions, family movements, and record keeping 1. Also in 1893 Congress set up the Dawes Commission to negotiate agreements with each of the Five Civilized Tribes for the allotment of tribal lands to individual Indians. Arkansas Territory thus included all of the present state of Oklahoma south of this latitude. Also, Oklahoma State University has a major research effort in developing the Geothermal heat pump, and is headquarters for the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association. However, it appears that the two people co-existed in the region for some time. Oklahoma City was first settled on April 22, 1889, when the area known as the " unassigned lands " (that is, land in Indian territory that had not been assigned to any tribes) was opened for settlement in an event known as " The Land Run ". In 1866 the federal government forced the tribes that had allied with the Confederacy into new Reconstruction Treaties. On March 23, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison signed legislation which opened up the two million acres (8,000 km²) of the Unassigned Lands for settlement on April 22, 1889. Out of the Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Territory and Orleans Territory were organized. Orleans Territory became the state of Louisiana in 1812, and Louisiana Territory was renamed Missouri Territory to avoid confusion. Lowitt, Richard, "Farm Crisis in Oklahoma, Part 1". While many all-black towns sprang up in the early days of Oklahoma, many have disappeared. of Calif., Berkeley, Clayton Library Center for Genealogical Research, https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Oklahoma_History&oldid=3594884, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Several reservations in central Oklahoma (1891), Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache lands (1901 and 1906). Oklahoma joined the Union in 1907 and has an incredible history that's been preserved by many groups. Confederate Commissioner Albert Pike signed formal treaties of alliance with all the major tribes, and the territories sent a delegate to the Confederate Congress in Richmond. Some nations were integrated racially with their slaves, but other nations were extremely hostile to the former slaves and wanted them exiled from their territory. They find that, "The shared experiences of Oklahoma's people over time speak of optimism, innovation, perseverance, entrepreneurialism, common sense, collective courage, and simple decency. Rather than learning each other's language, they communicated using Plains Indian Sign Language. FamilySearch Catalog Surnames Search lists many more histories under topics like: A wiki article describing an online collection is found at: Oklahoma County Marriages - FamilySearch Historical Records. Times were especially hard in 1930–33, as the prices of oil and farm products plunged, while debts remained high. The Great Depression lasted from 1929 to the late 1930s. The FAA's Academy is responsible for training Air Traffic Controllers. The building of Tinker Air Force Base and the FAA's Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City, and American Airlines Engineering center, Maintenance Facility and Data Center in Tulsa provide the state with a comparative advantage in the Aeronautical sector of the economy. They had a yearly Sun Dance gathering and a chieftain who was considered to be the leader of the entire tribe. The Oklahoma Historical Society has been collecting, preserving, and sharing the rich history of our state since 1893. David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. The panhandle remained under Spanish control. These works often mix the experiences of former sharecroppers of the western American South with those of the exodusters fleeing the fierce dust storms of the High Plains. University of Texas at Austin, College of Liberal Arts", "Choctaw Removal was really a "Trail of Tears, "Act of Congress, R.S. In the 1880s, early settlers of the state's very sparsely populated Panhandle region tried to form the Cimarron Territory but lost a lawsuit against the federal government. If this had happened, the Sequoyah would have been the first state to have a Native American majority population. They hunted deer, rabbit, turkey, and increasingly bison, and caught fish and collected mussels in the rivers. She helped underpaid, unskilled workers form their own union in Oklahoma City. Then in 1824, after further negotiations, the Choctaw agreed to move farther west, but only by "100 paces" of the garrison on Belle Point. The first giant leap forward in the history of the OHS came in 1917 with the move into the still-unfinished state Capitol at NE 23 and Lincoln. Image courtesy of Texas Beyond History AD 900–1300 Spiro Mounds You can also find lists of pioneers, soldiers, and civil officials. These famous Americans, famous entertainers, famous players, famous scientist, famous singers, famous statesmen, famous women, heroes, great explorers, and others Oklahoma famous Americans have all made Oklahoma their home. Others (mostly alive during the Dust Bowl era) still see the term negatively because they see the "Okie" migrants as quitters and transplants to the West Coast. Smith, Michael M., "Latinos in Oklahoma: A History of Four and a Half Centuries", This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 09:11. The first recorded European to enter the region was Spanish Conquistador Hernando de Soto, who encountered many cultures of Caddoan languages-speakers, including the Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee, and Kichai peoples. Both were hunter gatherers who used dogs to carry their belongings as they hunted from place to place. [4][5], Archaeologists believe that ancestors of the Wichita people occupied the eastern Great Plains from the Red River north to Nebraska for at least 2,000 years. and its 1955 cinema version. Picture of Oklahoma. One group that's been at the helm of preserving Oklahoma's history since 1893 is the Oklahoma Historical Society. According to archaeological research, humans occupy what is now Oklahoma 30,000 years ago. Statehood came to the poor ranching and farming state in Oklahoma, but soon oil was discovered and new wealth poured in. This page has been viewed 5,242 times (0 via redirect). "That is land that can be owned by no man", the judge said, and after that the panhandle was referred to as No Man's Land until statehood arrived decades later. To regain the initiative, Walton retaliated by attacking Oklahoma's Ku Klux Klan with a ban on parades, declaration of martial law, and employment of outsiders to 'keep the peace.' The Caddoan homeland was on the geographical and cultural edge of the Mississippian world and had similarities to both Mississippian Culture and Plains Traditions. But, strained by obligations in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte decided to sell the territory to the United States. This resulted in the bend in the Arkansas/Oklahoma border at Fort Smith, Arkansas.[13]. A history of the state of Oklahoma by Hill, L. B. The Adams–Onís Treaty thus delineated the southern (Red River) and primary western (100th meridian west) borders of the future state of Oklahoma. Among the companies in Tulsa are AAON (the former John Zink Company). By the 1920s, the Republican Party, taking advantage of rifts within the Democratic Party, gained control in the state. It is set in Oklahoma Territory outside the town of Claremore in 1906.[27]. The war was concluded by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which the U.S. received the lands contentiously claimed from Mexico by Texas (including the Oklahoma Panhandle), as well as lands west of the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean (the Mexican Cession). The United States Research "History" page cites nationwide bibliographies of local histories which include histories of Oklahoma. Ⓒ 2020 by Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved. The early years of statehood were marked with political activity. Congress passed the Dawes Act, or General Allotment Act, in 1887 requiring the government to negotiate agreements with the tribes to divide Indian lands into individual holdings. Learning about wars, governments, laws, migrations, and religious trends can help you understand political boundaries, family movements, and settlement patterns. The Kiowa are part of a Tanoan group located in the Pueblos of New Mexico. Many banks and businesses went bankrupt. In 1884, in United States v. Payne, the United States District Court in Topeka, Kansas, ruled that settling on the lands ceded to the government by the Indians under the 1866 treaties was not a crime. Walton's efforts failed, legislators charged Walton with corruption, impeached him, and removed him from office in 1923.[34]. This may be one of the best sources of information for some families. The Depression was made much worse for parts of the state by the Dust Bowl conditions. Most of Oklahoma was set aside as Indian Territory before the Civil War. Sec. The Apache quickly acquired horses, improving their mobility for quick raids on settlements.[12]. In 1893, the government purchased the rights to settle the Cherokee Outlet, or Cherokee Strip, from the Cherokee Nation. Much of their success came from their willingness to reach out to Black and American Indian voters (they were the only party to continue to resist Jim Crow laws), and their willingness to alter traditional Marxist ideology when it made sense to do so (the biggest changes were the party's support of widespread small-scale land ownership, and their willingness to use religion positively to preach the "Socialist gospel"). He suggested that if the attempt failed, the Indian Territory should work with the Oklahoma Territory to become one state. [14], The Chickasaw saw the relocation as inevitable and signed a treaty in 1832 which included protection until their move. [14], In 1833, a small group of Seminoles signed a relocation treaty. Watie was the last Confederate general to give up; he surrendered on June 23, 1865. Throughout the 1920s, new oil fields were continually discovered and Oklahoma produced over 1.8 billion barrels of petroleum, valued at over 3.5 million dollars for the decade. With exhibits scattered around the galleries and more public support, collections grew and the staff expanded to three people. Areas of Oklahoma east of its panhandle were acquired in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, while the Panhandle was not acquired until the U.S. land acquisitions following the Mexican–American War. The government at first resisted, but Congress soon enacted laws authorizing settlement. On November 15, 1824, the westernmost portion of Arkansas Territory was removed and included with the unorganized territory to the north, and a second westernmost portion was removed on May 6, 1828, reducing Arkansas Territory to the extent of the present state of Arkansas. Dale, Edward Everett, and Morris L. Wardell. ... Railroad Influences and History The area settled by the five Native Indian tribes developed slowly, finally becoming an incorporated city in 1898. Oklahoma Territory claimed a population of 790,391. Its abundant resources attracted early hunting and gathering peoples known as the Clovis and Folsom cultures by about 9500 bce. These villagers lived in rectangular thatched houses. The issue was eventually agreed to go before a vote of the people on Nov. 5, 1918. Short-term drought and long-term poor agricultural practices led to the Dust Bowl, when massive dust storms blew away the soil from large tracts of arable land and deposited it on nearby farms or even far-distant locations. In the 1870s, a movement began by whites and blacks wanting to settle the government lands in the Indian Territory under the Homestead Act of 1862. The treaty called for the Indians to give up their eastern land for land in the west. The Industrial Workers of the World tried to gain headway during this period but achieved little success. Numerous air bases dotted the map of Oklahoma. This new western border of Arkansas was originally intended to follow the western border of Missouri due south to the Red River. In Oklahoma City are International Environmental, ClimateMaster, and Climate Control (subsidiaries of LSB Industries). History of Oklahoma Photographic book - USA - 26/03/19. [3], The Caddoan Mississippian culture appears to have emerged from earlier groups of Woodland period groups, the Fourche Maline and Mossy Grove culture peoples who were living in the area around 200 BC to 800 AD. State, county, and local histories often contain biographical sketches of local citizens, including important genealogical information. There were warrior societies and religious societies that made up the Kiowa society. Major trends in Oklahoma history after the Depression era included the rise again of tribal sovereignty (including the issuance of tribal automobile license plates, and the opening of tribal smoke shops, casinos, grocery stores, and other commercial enterprises), the rapid growth of suburban Oklahoma City and Tulsa, the drop in population in Western Oklahoma, the oil boom of the 1980s and the oil bust of the 1990s. Finally, the Curtis Act of 1898 abolished tribal jurisdiction over all of Indian Territory. ", http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/D/Richard.R.Drass-1/Washita.html, "Plateaus and Canyonlands: Kiowa. [29] However, the war drove food prices up, allowing the farmers to prosper, and the movement faded away. (25 USC Sec. Often described as a “community center for the state,” it is a prime example of … People have lived in what is now Oklahoma as long as the oldest known documented Paleo-Indian cultures in the field of archaeology/anthropology. Grapes of Wrath was a powerful but simplistic view of the complex conditions in rural Oklahoma, and fails to mention the great majority of people remained in Oklahoma. This march westward is known as the Trail of Tears, in which 4,000 Cherokee died.[14]. It is hoped, however, that the suggested readings at the end of each chapter will make it possible for students and other readers interested in the colorful history of this State to supplement the material included in the text. Tanoan languages are those that were spoken in the Jemez, Piro, Tiwa, and Tewa pueblos of New Mexico. The U.S. sent 7,000 soldiers to force the Cherokee to move without the time to gather their belongings. [14], The Treaty of New Echota of 1835 gave the Cherokees living in the state of Georgia two years to move west, or they would be forced to move. One of the conditions was that to be admitted as a slave state, Texas had to set its northern border at parallel 36°30' north as per the Missouri Compromise. 11. It came to a heated debate in Oklahoma before the 19th amendment. This also resulted in an unassigned strip of land existing between Kansas's southern border and the northern border of the Texas Panhandle at 36°30' north, a neutral strip or "No Man's Land" that eventually became the Oklahoma Panhandle. On November 16, 1907 President Theodore Roosevelt signed the proclamation establishing Oklahoma as the nation's 46th state. The convention drafted the constitution, established an organizational plan for a government, outlined proposed county designations in the new state, and elected delegates to go to the United States Congress to petition for statehood. The inhabitants of these villages grew corn, beans, squash, marsh elder, and tobacco. Informally this was called the "Step Boundary", although its step-like shape was not apparent for several decades. Socialism became a growing force among struggling farmers, and Oklahoma grew to have the largest Socialist population in the United States at the time, with the Socialist vote doubling in every election until the American entry into World War I in 1917. [21][22] This land would be widely called the Unassigned Lands or Oklahoma Country in the 1880s due to it remaining uninhabited for over a decade. [19], During the Civil War, Congress passed a statute (still in effect) that gave the President the authority to suspend the appropriations of any tribe if the tribe is "in a state of actual hostility to the government of the United States … and, by proclamation, to declare all treaties with such tribe to be abrogated by such tribe." AAR Corporation has operations in both Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and The Boeing Company and Pratt & Whitney are building a regional presence next to Tinker AFB. Farmers were hit the hardest and many relocated to the cities and established poor communities known as Hoovervilles. The United States entered into two new treaties with the Creeks and the Seminoles. [38] Oklahoma State University–Okmulgee is known in the industry for its Air Conditioning Technology programs. Department of History 455 West Lindsey Street, Room 403A Norman, Oklahoma 73019-2004 405.325.6002 phone 405.325.4503 fax Greenwood, a neighborhood in Northern Tulsa, was known as Black Wall Street because of the vibrant business, cultural, and religious community there. The Tulsa Metropolitan Area has been home to more traditional oil companies such as ONEOK, Williams Companies, Helmerich & Payne, Magellan Midstream Partners with significant presence from ConocoPhillips. In 1902, the leaders of Indian Territory sought to become their own state, to be named Sequoyah. The prosperity of the 1920s can be seen in the surviving architecture from the period, such as the Tulsa mansion which was converted into the Philbrook Museum of Art or the art deco architecture of downtown Tulsa. The new boundary was to be the Sabine River north from the Gulf of Mexico to the 32nd parallel north, then due north to the Red River, west along the Red River to the 100th meridian west, due north to the Arkansas River, west to its headwaters, north to the 42nd parallel north, and finally west along that parallel to the Pacific Ocean. The act established several specific requirements for the proposed constitution. Linguists who study the history of languages, however, believe that Kiowa split from Tanoan branch over 3,000 years ago and moved to the far north. Historians David Baird and Danney Goble have searched for the essence of the historical experiences of the people of Oklahoma. This museum is ALL things Oklahoma. [36], Oklahoma consistently rated among the top 10 states in war-bond sales, as it used showmanship, the spirit of competition, house-to-house solicitations, and direct appeals to big business to mobilize patriotism, state pride, and the need to save some of the high wages that could not be spent because of rationing and shortages. It was opened for general settlement around 1890—the "Sooners" were settlers who jumped the gun. By late summer 1863, Union forces controlled Fort Smith in neighboring Arkansas, and Confederate hopes for retaining control of the territory collapsed. In this sense, any history is useful. 1889 - Much of Oklahoma is opened up to homesteaders. University of Texas at Austin, College of Liberal Arts", "Tejas-Caddo Fundamentals-Caddo Timeline", "Southern Plains Village Complexes in Oklahoma. It was also by this treaty that the land comprising the Oklahoma Panhandle was separated from the rest of the future state and ceded to the Spanish government. 2080 derived from act July 5, 1862, ch. The phrase "Trail of Tears" originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831, although the term is also used in reference to the Cherokee removal in 1838–39. The Native Indians of Oklahoma had not developed immunities against these diseases resulting in huge losses in population. However, once the Spanish exercised their power over the area, traditional trade patterns between the tribes was disrupted and the Pueblo were forced to work Spanish mission lands and care for mission flocks. Part of what became Oklahoma was designated as the home for the relocation of the Five Civilized Tribes; it was "at the time the only available location where the Indians would not be in the way of white expansion. 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