But only 30% of its personnel have resumed their jobs, mostly Dharavi locals, leaving the company well short of the numbers it might need to fill large orders. “We are fed up with this virus,” Ilaiyaraaja said in her tiny tenement apartment, two of her daughters sitting shyly by her side, “and with waiting for this nightmare to be over.”. The problem, for International Footsteps as well as other businesses in Dharavi, is that “everyone” isn’t who it used to be. By the time the area played a starring role in 2008’s Slumdog Millionaire, soaring housing costs in the rest of Mumbai had even made it attractive to some white-collar workers looking for affordable, centrally located housing. In some countries their inhabitants account for 90% of the informal urban workforce—an army of construction laborers, small-time vendors, assembly-line helpers, and restaurant servers that developing world metropolises rely on to function. Their apartment buildings had banned entry to outside help, out of fear that cleaners and cooks would bring the virus with them. With a population density of over 277,136/km2, Dharavi is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. The irony is that Dharavi, which has a population of about 1 million and is probably the most densely packed human settlement on Earth, has largely contained the coronavirus. But during a recent visit, the shredder was silent and the workers gone, decamped to their villages in India’s north. ▲ Dr. Asad Khan (center) and Dighavkar at a field hospital. It is important to residents that the economy of Dharavi and their own livelihoods are supportedduring this change. His department has assembled an army of almost 6,000 health workers and volunteers, mainly from Dharavi itself, who’ve been given thermometers, pulse oximeters, and basic training in how to spot Covid-19. Some were reluctant to cooperate. Children play amongst sewage waste and doctors deal with 4,000 cases a … Whether in Nairobi’s Kibera or Rio de Janeiro’s hilltop favelas, slum economies are inextricably linked to the cities around them. The consensus was pessimistic. Sunanda Bhoyar was more practically attired, in a block-print tunic over billowy pink trousers, and donned her suit with ease. “It will be part of our continuous process from now on.”. Whole streets were sealed off behind checkpoints, with officers on patrol and camera-equipped drones buzzing overhead. The Slum redevelopment in Dharavi called the Dharavi Redevelopment Plan (DRP), is a public – private partnership project developed by private developers (Arputham & Patel 2010). Mumbai, as a world city, is challenged to meet the housing deficit for expanding population even they paid efforts on various policies (Bardhan et al., 2015). To meet the burgeoning healthcare needs of its growing number of settlers, there has been a rise in the number of unregistered and informal private health care providers within the slum (Anant & Bergvist, 2016). Deprivation abounded, but Dharavi could also be a social accelerator, allowing the poorest to begin their long climb to greater prosperity—and to joining the consumer class that powers the $3 trillion Indian economy. Five workers were there 12 hours a day, seven days a week, dumping crushed water bottles, … India's Dharavi, the continent's most crowded slum, has gone from coronavirus hotspot to potential success story. But, the negative impacts that result from slums are alarming. Maintaining physical distancing is a great task as … It also offered to cover the cost of transportation back to the city and is looking into securing more spacious housing—maybe even with the luxury of an attached toilet—for staff who return. Qureshi’s own family is a case in point. There were far too many of them to evict, or ignore, and in the 1970s, vote-seeking politicians began to make small improvements, such as public latrines. “Precaution will be our key focus going forward,” she said—“social distancing, awareness related to hygiene, fever screening, and sanitization.” Even with the massive slum slowly coming back to life, Bhoyar added, “I’m not really scared.”. So the family is in limbo, waiting both for the economy to pick up and for the stigma attached to slum dwellers to fade. Qureshi, a stout, thick-fingered man of 43 whose father founded the operation, mostly ignored his feline workplace companions. He’d been spending his days sitting on a plastic chair, drinking cup after cup of milk tea and chatting with other Dharavi entrepreneurs, all of them part of Mumbai’s fearsomely efficient but completely informal recycling industry, who stopped by to talk business. By July some parts of Dharavi were coming slowly back to life. A place with more people than San Francisco, crammed into an area smaller than Central Park, is hardly a promising environment for social distancing. She and her three young daughters now depend entirely on her husband, who lost his job as a welder during the lockdown and is making just 100 rupees ($1.37) a day loading trucks. There are also toxic wastes in the slum including hugely dangerous heavy metals. The municipal government had been distributing masks, gloves, face shields, and sanitizer to factories for free, turning a blind eye to illegal operations in the hope that owners would accept help. Those who tested positive were sent to hospital wards that had been dedicated entirely to treating Covid-19, while contact tracers raced to locate people they’d spent time with. Dharavi is a locality in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, considered to be one of Asia's largest slums. But even the most fatalistic virologists credit Dighavkar’s model with keeping mortality low, with some help from a youthful population. Adequate policy responses are then suggested. This kind of tedious work has none of the technological glitz of an innovative treatment or the silver-bullet promise of an effective vaccine. Those jobs are never easy, but they are often preferable to the monotony of rural poverty. As the Raj gave way to independent India and Mumbai’s population swelled, the teeming slum eventually found itself not on the city’s fringe but near its geographic center. But he was more impressed with the 10% raise he’d received for coming back to work. With the global economic slump depressing activity in cities, a large proportion of the migrants have stayed in the countryside. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. All added their own living quarters, building with whatever materials they could find, giving little notice to the fact they were, technically, squatting on government-owned land. By then, many of its tents and huts had been replaced by structures of brick, concrete, and tile, arrayed around communal wells and powered by electricity from the municipal grid—even though almost no residents had formal land title. In front of his broad wooden desk, someone had set up neat rows of chairs to allow subordinates to gather before him like students at an assembly. Dharavi has an area of just over 2.1 square kilometres and a population of about 1,000,000. On a muggy summer day, seven anxious-looking people, all wearing masks, stepped off a minibus and into a large vinyl tent that had taken over a parking lot on Dharavi’s outskirts. Some scientists have suggested the impressive numbers aren’t entirely the result of public-health measures. Meanwhile, Mumbai’s government had begun floating ideas for a redevelopment, one that would replace lopsided squatters’ homes with modern apartments and move factories and workshops into purpose-built quarters, probably elsewhere in the metropolis. Connecting decision makers to a dynamic network of information, people and ideas, Bloomberg quickly and accurately delivers business and financial information, news and insight around the world. This prompted Khan to query the new arrivals on why they’d been brought to his tent. Next to the open sewers are water pipes, which can crack and take in sewage. The problem, for International Footsteps as well as other businesses in Dharavi, is that “everyone” isn’t who it used to be. But Dighavkar’s workers gradually won their trust, thanks in part to residents returning from quarantine telling of a comfortable stay and competent care. That success has made Dharavi an unlikely role model, its methods copied by epidemiologists elsewhere and singled out for praise by the World Health Organization. Past the double doors the group entered a spacious holding area monitored by a thermal camera on a tripod. Last year he was named assistant municipal commissioner for G Ward North, a swath of Mumbai that includes the slum. His father was born in the hinterland to a poor tenant farmer but moved to Dharavi to work in a textile factory, getting into the recycling business after he realized the value of the plastic packaging that new spools of thread arrived in. Deadly diseases like cholera, diarrhoea, malaria, gastrointestinal disorders, etc. The Dharavi Slums Asia's largest slum, Dharavi, lies in the heart of India's financial capital, Mumbai (Bombay). An Introduction to the Slums. The apparent containment of the virus in Dharavi, or at least of its worst effects, didn’t spare its people economically. are very common in slum areas. Dharavi slum This resource supports the teaching of the Extreme global impacts unit and focuses on the problems of living in the Dharavi slums and the possible solutions that exist. “I have to earn a living,” he said. As of 2012, 863 million people called a slum their home. The reason that past redevelopment projects have failed is largely due to resistance from slum residents who felt the plans were not in their interest. One morning in July, after one of the heaviest monsoon rainfalls Mumbai had seen in years, about a dozen of these women gathered at a public hospital to collect their addresses for the day and suit up in protective gear. The tent housed a 192-bed field hospital for Covid-19 cases and had been carefully designed to triage incoming patients without letting them spread the virus. The future of Dharavi’s manufacturing sector may look like International Footsteps, a factory that makes sandals for Western mall brands such as Aldo. That’s not enough to pay for the cost of traveling to their home village in South India, where they could live rent-free, nor to cover school tuition for the girls. That was due in part to opposition from residents, who pointed out that even if renovations brought better housing, their jobs might be relocated to distant industrial parks. Dharavi is a unique case. When the system detected a fever, the monitor was supposed to show a red box around a patient, while normal temperatures would prompt a green box. There, if you skip between a puddle of foul water and a dead rat, then duck beneath a tangle of electrical wires, you’ll come to a dark, damp tunnel leading to what feels like a different world. Photographs and Video by Zishaan A Latif. A few minutes later they climbed back into their vehicle and were driven away. Just behind, in a sealed-off observation booth, Dr. Asad Khan issued instructions through a microphone while observing the camera feed on a monitor. (Bloomberg Businessweek) -- Normally, Khwaja Qureshi’s recycling facility in Dharavi, the slum in Mumbai, would be no place for three newborn tabby kittens. The country has recorded more than 6.5 million confirmed cases—putting it on track to soon overtake the U.S.—and over 103,000 deaths. In a pristine marble hallway, a multilingual sign asks visitors to apply some hand sanitizer from a dispenser on the wall. The slum was founded in 1882 during the British colonial era. With redevelopment plans in flux, Dighavkar’s superiors had little enthusiasm for putting significant money into Dharavi. So the company was letting him stay on the premises for free, until he could find a more permanent arrangement. International Footsteps tried to keep connected with its workers, paying them 80% of their salaries for the first month of lockdown and 60% for the second. Managers had cleared out some upstairs storage space to allow more distance between each employee, and all of them were wearing disposable smocks, masks, and plastic face shields, purchased at the company’s expense. Children play amongst sewage waste and doctors deal with cases a day of diphtheria and typhoid. 50, No. Dighavkar, watching from inside the booth, was pleased. Authorities stress that … No one had much hope that things would pick up soon. Just beyond is a bright workshop, where during a recent visit eight artisans sat cross-legged at workstations spaced about two feet apart—considerably less jammed-in than they would have been before this year. As the Indian Government, we promise to fix these problems by: Replacing corroded pipes Making a closed sewer system Fixing faulty, useless and illegal water pipe connections Installing water pipes throughout the rest of Dharavi Banning waste incineration And increasing laws around industry Dharavi, often considered Asia's biggest slum with an estimated 1 million residents, has reported 71 cases and experts fear the number could climb quickly. Led by an energetic municipal manager named Kiran Dighavkar, who was also in charge of the slum’s Covid-19 response, people in Dharavi are now trying to restart their economic lives without seeding new outbreaks. It is incredible but yes some genius teenager girls have … “Now we have to live with this disease,” Dighavkar said in an interview at a temporary hospital, one of several he’d established to handle Covid-19 cases. Made up of seven islands on the west coast of India since merged … They were contacts of positive cases and were supposed to have been taken to an isolation center, not the hospital. Residents rely on the micro-enterprises in the slum, some of which take part in homes and outdoor spaces being used for places of work and social interaction. • The Dharavi slums face a lot of problems like noise, water and air pollution, it also has no sewage or drainage systems. 6 Negative Impacts of Slums Slums are heavily populated urban areas characterized by substandard housing, inadequate access to clean water and sanitation, and a constantly changing residential population. I went on this 3-hr Mumbai Dharavi slum walking tour which I booked through Klook. With rare exceptions, no one could leave the area, not that there was anywhere to go: The rest of the city, and all of India, were locked down, too, though usually with much lighter enforcement. But as the rain started to pick up again, Bhoyar said she was convinced that, in Dharavi, it would be enough to keep the virus at bay. The problem with Dharavi tourism Slum tours, also called reality tours, adventure tours, artisanal tours, and poverty tours and are advertised under the “niche travel” sections of several tourism portals. After drawing the hoods over their hair, they looked a little like snowmen. The only solution, Dighavkar says, is “screening, screening, screening,” an unrelenting effort to track down infected people and isolate them from the community. Dharavi slum is based around this water pipe built on an old rubbish tip. She told the young man who answered the door that everyone who lived in the house needed to go to a quarantine center for observation and testing. Bhoyar wasn’t having it. Rather than waiting for infected people to announce themselves, the government began dispatching teams of health-care workers to find them, going door to door asking about symptoms, offering free fever screenings, and administering tests to those likeliest to have the virus. He and his three brothers had four rooms, he said—plenty of space to isolate at home. “This is the procedure. Five workers were there 12 hours a day, seven days a week, dumping crushed water bottles, broken television casings, and discarded lunchboxes into a roaring iron shredder, then loading the resulting mix of plastic into jute sacks for sale to manufacturers. ▲ Khwaja Qureshi is waiting for his employees to return. Many have had experiences like those of Valli Ilaiyaraaja, who used to work as a cleaner for three families in a neighborhood near the slum, and said none would allow her back even after the national lockdown ended in June. Many people in Dharavi work in unlicensed businesses that are in perpetual danger of being closed, and have good reasons to avoid contact with the authorities. This project deals with informal settlements in Dharavi north of Mumbai, the biggest slum in Asia covering an area of approximately 220ha and housing some 600,000 inhabitants. ▲ Bhoyar prepares to visit Dharavi residents. So in his first months in his new role he focused on the middle-class neighborhoods at its edges, laying new sidewalks and making symbolic changes such as switching the figures on crosswalk signals from male to female. He also proudly took credit for building the city’s costliest public convenience, a $122,000 toilet complex on a busy seaside promenade. A $2 billion development project aims to rehouse slum dwellers in high-rise apartment blocks built next to the slum This is controversial as it will break the sense of community to the settlement Improvement schemes: Bottom-up approaches Normally, Khwaja Qureshi’s recycling facility in Dharavi, the slum in Mumbai, would be no place for three newborn tabby kittens. Because Dharavi is so condensed, it has grown into its own ecosystem. Download the PowerPoint resource The slum spread over 535 acres has over one lakh huts with a population of 15 to 16 lakh. ▲ Kiran Dighavkar at an isolation center. Due to the exponential growth of Mumbai, the informal settlements at Dharavi shall be cleared and transformed into modern business and housing districts. The slum is not only a manifestation of mismanaged urban planning in the countries of the South. Children play amongst sewage waste and doctors deal with 4,000 cases a day of diphtheria and typhoid. The Dharavi Redevelopment Project was approved by the state government in the year 2018. It’s a substantial commitment of resources, but the human and economic toll of a renewed outbreak would be far larger. Dharavi Redevelopment Project is one of the projects in India that is approved for the development of Dharavi, which is a slum area near to Mumbai. The example of mega-project like the slum redevelopment project in Dharavi (DPR) will be mentioned later. In simple words we could see that slums are treated as areas of extreme policy neglect over time to time whereas if we look more into the policy implications on slums especially that of Dharavi we could see that in the year 2009 the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) scheme to make India ‘slum-free’ within 5 years was announced and later the period is extended to 7 years. At the very least, people had to come out to use the toilet, to fill water bottles from public taps, and to collect food packets donated by charities. Dighavkar, who is 37 and a civil engineer by training, came to Dharavi with modest ambitions. Anywhere between 20 and 50 families have to share one community toilet and one water tap. Lack of cleanliness; Solutions to social Problems of Slums in India : Central government should take some fruitful checking policy in case of implementation of their policies. She soon set off into the heart of Dharavi’s residential quarter, a warren of footpaths and alleyways often too narrow for a pair of people to walk abreast. Contactless entry.”. The front line of Dighavkar’s plan will be made up of women. Everyday the potters brick kilns send huge black clouds into the air which pollutes the air and makes the cloud black and Sion hospital complains about the heavy black smoke that's making their patients case worse. The Dharavi slums face a lot of problems like noise, water and air pollution, it also has no sewage or drainage systems.
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