[124] During the conversation, Debussy told Guiraud, "There is no theory. Clair de lune, Dances for Harp and Orchestra, L. 103: 2. A fictionalised and melodramatic dramatisation of the affair. He took many years to develop his mature style, and was nearly 40 when he achieved international fame in 1902 with the only opera he completed, Pelléas et Mélisande. We don’t have any upcoming events for this artist right now. Claude Debussy was born into a poor family in France in 1862, but his obvious gift at the piano sent him to the Paris Conservatory at age 11. Some traumatizing events in his childhood caused him a depression and he never spoke about his early years. "[2] In 1914 Debussy started work on a planned set of six sonatas for various instruments. His mature compositions, distinctive and appealing, combined modernism and sensuality so successfully that their sheer beauty often obscures their technical innovation. He first joined the piano class of Antoine François Marmontel,[14] and studied solfège with Albert Lavignac and, later, composition with Ernest Guiraud, harmony with Émile Durand, and organ with César Franck. "[143] In 1915 he complained that "since Rameau we have had no purely French tradition [...] We tolerated overblown orchestras, tortuous forms [...] we were about to give the seal of approval to even more suspect naturalizations when the sound of gunfire put a sudden stop to it all." He wrote his own poems for the Proses lyriques (1892–1893) but, in the view of the musical scholar Robert Orledge, "his literary talents were not on a par with his musical imagination". [2] In the music of Palestrina, Debussy found what he called "a perfect whiteness", and he felt that although Palestrina's musical forms had a "strict manner", they were more to his taste than the rigid rules prevailing among 19th-century French composers and teachers. The funeral procession made its way through deserted streets to a temporary grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery as the German guns bombarded the city. [2] After Debussy's short Wagnerian phase, he started to become interested in non-Western music and its unfamiliar approaches to composition. Claude Debussy was born on 22 August 1862 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, the eldest of five children. Many of these early recordings have been reissued on CD. [76] Mary Garden said, "I honestly don't know if Debussy ever loved anybody really. For other uses, see, 19th and 20th-century French classical composer, Composed in 1890, performed by Laurens Goedhart in 2011. Debussy: Piano Music DEBUSSY. Writing to Stravinsky, he asked "How could we not have foreseen that these men were plotting the destruction of our art, just as they had planned the destruction of our country? Debussy senior ran a china shop and his wife was a seamstress. [2][148][149][150] Roger Nichols writes that "if one omits Schoenberg [...] a list of 20th-century composers influenced by Debussy is practically a list of 20th-century composers tout court. [82], Although Debussy was in no doubt of Wagner's stature, he was only briefly influenced by him in his compositions, after La damoiselle élue and the Cinq poèmes de Baudelaire (both begun in 1887). [105] The latter failed as a ballet because of what Jann Pasler describes as a banal scenario, and the score was neglected for some years. [2][9] The shop was unsuccessful, and closed in 1864; the family moved to Paris, first living with Victorine's mother, in Clichy, and, from 1868, in their own apartment in the Rue Saint-Honoré. In 2018, to mark the centenary of the composer's death, Warner Classics, with contributions from other companies, issued a 33-CD set that is claimed to include all the music Debussy wrote. [39], In 1889, at the Paris Exposition Universelle, Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music. [83], In 1915 Debussy underwent one of the earliest colostomy operations. He is sometimes seen as the first Impressionist composer, although he vigorously rejected the term. [41], Debussy continued to compose songs, piano pieces and other works, some of which were publicly performed, but his music made only a modest impact, although his fellow composers recognised his potential by electing him to the committee of the Société Nationale de Musique in 1893. [85] His health continued to decline; he gave his final concert (the premiere of his Violin Sonata) on 14 September 1917 and became bedridden in early 1918. Jean-Aubry, Georges. [46] While still living with Dupont, he had an affair with the singer Thérèse Roger, and in 1894 he announced their engagement. He expressed trenchant views on composers ("I hate sentimentality – his name is Camille Saint-Saëns"), institutions (on the Paris Opéra: "A stranger would take it for a railway station, and, once inside, would mistake it for a Turkish bath"), conductors ("Nikisch is a unique virtuoso, so much so that his virtuosity seems to make him forget the claims of good taste"), musical politics ("The English actually think that a musician can manage an opera house successfully! Add image [48] She was affectionate, practical, straightforward, and well liked by Debussy's friends and associates,[49] but he became increasingly irritated by her intellectual limitations and lack of musical sensitivity. Estampes for piano (1903) gives impressions of exotic locations, with further echoes of the gamelan in its pentatonic structures. Connect your Spotify account to your Last.fm account and scrobble everything you listen to, from any Spotify app on any device or platform. That, and the three Images, premiered the following year, were the composer's last orchestral works. [51] Claude-Emma, affectionately known as "Chouchou", was a musical inspiration to the composer (she was the dedicatee of his Children's Corner suite). As well as Maeterlinck for Pelléas et Mélisande, he drew on Shakespeare and Dickens for two of his Préludes for piano – La Danse de Puck (Book 1, 1910) and Hommage à S. Pickwick Esq. [10], With Marmontel's help Debussy secured a summer vacation job in 1879 as resident pianist at the Château de Chenonceau, where he rapidly acquired a taste for luxury that was to remain with him all his life. "[110], Debussy strongly objected to the use of the word "Impressionism" for his (or anybody else's) music,[n 14] but it has continually been attached to him since the assessors at the Conservatoire first applied it, opprobriously, to his early work Printemps. Clair de lune. [51], In 1900 Debussy began attending meetings of Les Apaches ("The Hooligans") an informal group of innovative young artists, poets, critics, and musicians who had adopted their collective title to represent their status as "artistic outcasts". Audio CD. [74][n 12] In the same month the composer's only child was born at their home. Claude Debussy was born in St. Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, France. [28], At the Conservatoire, Debussy incurred the disapproval of the faculty, particularly his composition teacher, Guiraud, for his failure to follow the orthodox rules of composition then prevailing. Debussy was an influential composer of the late 19/ early 20th centuries, creating works … In 1880, Tchaikovsky commented on one of Debussy's early pieces: "It is a very pretty piece, but it is much too short. [2] Lesure also considers that Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov directly influenced Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande. Audio CD. Writing soon after Debussy's death, Newman found them laboured – "a strange last chapter in a great artist's life";[87] Lesure, writing eighty years later, rates them among Debussy's greatest late works: "Behind a pedagogic exterior, these 12 pieces explore abstract intervals, or – in the last five – the sonorities and timbres peculiar to the piano. [93] The central "Jeux de vagues" section has the function of a symphonic development section leading into the final "Dialogue du vent et de la mer", "a powerful essay in orchestral colour and sonority" (Orledge) which reworks themes from the first movement. [109] Langham Smith writes that the term became transferred to the compositions of Debussy and others which were "concerned with the representation of landscape or natural phenomena, particularly the water and light imagery dear to Impressionists, through subtle textures suffused with instrumental colour". – although he also conceded, "I feel free because I have been through the mill, and I don't write in the fugal style because I know it. [25], In addition to the composers who influenced his own compositions, Debussy held strong views about several others. Whether Vasnier was content to tolerate his wife's affair with the young student or was simply unaware of it is not clear, but he and Debussy remained on excellent terms, and he continued to encourage the composer in his career. [87] They include the String Quartet (1893), Pelléas et Mélisande (1893–1902), the Nocturnes for Orchestra (1899) and La mer (1903–1905). [60], In January 1902 rehearsals began at the Opéra-Comique for the opening of Pelléas et Mélisande. [64] The vocal score was published in early May, and the full orchestral score in 1904. He was greatly influenced by the Symbolist poetic movement of the later 19th century. His mature compositions, distinctive and appealing, combined modernism and sensuality so successfully that their sheer … [82] In the same year, visiting Budapest, Debussy commented that his works were better known there than in Paris. He was a fine pianist and an outstanding sight reader, who could have had a professional career had he wished,[20] but he was only intermittently diligent in his studies. Achille-Claude Debussy (French pronunciation: [aʃil klod dəbysi]) (August 22, 1862 ? [102][n 13] The three-part, cyclic symphony by César Franck (1888) was more to his liking, and its influence can be found in La mer (1905); this uses a quasi-symphonic form, its three sections making up a giant sonata-form movement with, as Orledge observes, a cyclic theme, in the manner of Franck. [24] He composed his Piano Trio in G major for von Meck's ensemble, and made a transcription for piano duet of three dances from Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake. [97] Most of the major works for which Debussy is best known were written between the mid-1890s and the mid-1900s. She is described in the. [142], With the advent of the First World War, Debussy became ardently patriotic in his musical opinions. In 1912 Debussy had remarked to his publisher of the opera Ariane et Barbe-bleue by the (also Jewish) composer Paul Dukas, "You're right, [it] is a masterpiece – but it's not a masterpiece of French music. The total playing time is an enjoyable 77.02 minutes. Maeterlinck wanted his mistress, Georgette Leblanc, to sing the role, and was incensed when she was passed over in favour of the Scottish soprano Mary Garden. [38] He commented in 1903 that Wagner was "a beautiful sunset that was mistaken for a dawn". Raoul introduced his teacher to his mother, to whom Debussy quickly became greatly attracted. [95], In the String Quartet (1893), the gamelan sonorities Debussy had heard four years earlier are recalled in the pizzicatos and cross-rhythms of the scherzo. In 1890 he began work on an orchestral piece inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Fall of the House of Usher and later sketched the libretto for an opera, La chute de la maison Usher. [151] Not only Debussy's use of whole-tone scales, but also his style of word-setting in Pelléas et Mélisande, were the subject of study by Leoš Janáček while he was writing his 1921 opera Káťa Kabanová. Also it is sold at a very competitive price! He responded positively to Wagner's sensuousness, mastery of form, and striking harmonies,[2] and was briefly influenced by them,[37] but, unlike some other French composers of his generation, he concluded that there was no future in attempting to adopt and develop Wagner's style. The Academy chided him for writing music that was "bizarre, incomprehensible and unperformable". They favoured poetry using suggestion rather than direct statement; the literary scholar Chris Baldrick writes that they evoked "subjective moods through the use of private symbols, while avoiding the description of external reality or the expression of opinion". [26] Among the members of the class was Marie Vasnier; Debussy was greatly taken with her, and she inspired him to compose: he wrote 27 songs dedicated to her during their seven-year relationship. [41], In February 1894 Debussy completed the first draft of Act I of his operatic version of Pelléas et Mélisande, and for most of the year worked to complete the work. They stayed at the Grand Hotel, Eastbourne in July and August, where Debussy corrected the proofs of his symphonic sketches La mer, celebrating his divorce on 2 August. He was one of the most important figures in music at the turn of the 20th century; his music represents the transition from late-romantic to 20th century classical. Although they did not make any great impact with the public they were well reviewed by musicians including Paul Dukas, Alfred Bruneau and Pierre de Bréville. Debussy's most dramatic contribution to music history was his disregard for traditional chord … His father was a salesman and kept a china shop. [100] The composer Olivier Messiaen was fascinated by its "extraordinary harmonic qualities and ... transparent instrumental texture". He wrote incidental music for King Lear and planned an opera based on As You Like It, but abandoned that once he turned his attention to setting Maeterlinck's play. They may also indicate the influence on Debussy of Satie's 1887 Trois Sarabandes. But ...", "23 Square Avenue Foch 75116 Paris, France", "Debussy's Orchestral Collaborations, 1911–13. 20–21; Walsh (2003), Chapter 1; and Jensen, pp. Achille-Claude Debussy (22nd August 1862 – 25th March 1918) was a French composer. Claude Debussy in 1908 This is a complete list of compositions by Claude Debussy … Saint-Saëns had been a member of the Institut since 1881: Debussy never became one. [161], The pianist Stephen Hough believes that Debussy's influence also extends to jazz and suggests that Reflets dans l'eau can be heard in the harmonies of Bill Evans. Debussy's birthplace is now a museum dedicated to him. She claimed to have studied with, In September 1880 von Meck sent the manuscript of Debussy's, Debussy's regard for Rimsky-Korsakov's music was not reciprocated. We must at all costs preserve this magic which is peculiar to music and to which music, by its nature, is of all the arts the most receptive. [147] French writers whose words he set include Paul Bourget, Alfred de Musset, Théodore de Banville, Leconte de Lisle, Théophile Gautier, Paul Verlaine, François Villon, and Mallarmé – the last of whom also provided Debussy with the inspiration for one of his most popular orchestral pieces, Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune. [2], Debussy wrote "We must agree that the beauty of a work of art will always remain a mystery [...] we can never be absolutely sure 'how it's made.' [100] The opera is composed in what Alan Blyth describes as a sustained and heightened recitative style, with "sensuous, intimate" vocal lines. 43–44 (Saint-Saëns) and pp. But the work as a whole is distinctive, and the first in which we get a hint of the Debussy we were to know later – the lover of vague outlines, of half-lights, of mysterious consonances and dissonances of colour, the apostle of languor, the exclusivist in thought and in style. 4.5 out of 5 stars 24. Claude Debussy was an influential French composer of the late Romantic era and early Twentieth-century. [41] His String Quartet was premiered by the Ysaÿe string quartet at the Société Nationale in the same year. The analyst Richard Langham Smith writes that Impressionism was originally a term coined to describe a style of late 19th-century French painting, typically scenes suffused with reflected light in which the emphasis is on the overall impression rather than outline or clarity of detail, as in works by Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and others. He helped transition western art music from the Romantic period to the Modern period through his use of ethereal harmony and unique musical structures. [109], Among painters, Debussy particularly admired Turner, but also drew inspiration from Whistler. Andante très expressif, Suite Bergamasque, L. 75: III. Leave feedback, Achille-Claude Debussy (22nd August 1862 – 25th March 1918) was a French composer. (Book 2, 1913). [152] Stravinsky was more ambivalent about Debussy's music (he thought Pelléas "a terrible bore ... in spite of many wonderful pages")[153] but the two composers knew each other and Stravinsky's Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920) was written as a memorial for Debussy. Reti concludes that Debussy's achievement was the synthesis of monophonic based "melodic tonality" with harmonies, albeit different from those of "harmonic tonality". [87] In a 2004 study, Mark DeVoto comments that Debussy's early works are harmonically no more adventurous than existing music by Fauré;[94] in a 2007 book about the piano works, Margery Halford observes that Two Arabesques (1888–1891) and "Rêverie" (1890) have "the fluidity and warmth of Debussy's later style" but are not harmonically innovative. [41] This too made an impression on him, and its harmonic freedom and non-Teutonic tone colours influenced his own developing musical style. 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